Analytical issues

Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G. J. & Van Heerden, J. (2003). The theoretical status of latent variables. Psychological Review, 110, 203-219.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

Caprara, G.V., Barabaranelli, C., Bermudez, J., Maslach, C., & Ruch, W. (2000). Multivariate methods for the comparison of factor structures in cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 437-464.

Glorfeld, L. W. (1995). An improvement on Horn’s parallel analysis methodology for selecting the correct number of factors to retain. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 377-393.

Guadagnoli, E. & Velicer, W. F. (1988). Relationship of sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 265-275.

Guttman, L. (1954). Some necessary conditions for common factor analysis. Psychometrika, 19, 149-162.

Haven, S. & Ten Berge, J. M. F. (1977). Tucker’s coefficient of congruence as a measure of factorial invariance: An empirical study. Heyman Bulletin, No. 290 EX, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G. & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis. Organisational Research Methods, 7, 191-205.

Hogarty, K. Y. & Kromrey, J. D. (1999). Poster presented at 24th International Conference for SAS Users. Retrieved October 27, 2009, from:

Hogarty, K. Y. & Kromrey, J. D. (2000). Robust effect size estimates and meta-analytic tests of homogeneity. Poster presented at 25th International Conference for SAS Users. Retrieved October 27, 2009, from:

Horn, J. L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30, 179-185.

Kline, P. (1994). An easy guide to factor analysis. London: Routledge.

Laher, S.& Botha, A. (2012). Methods of sampling. In C. Wagner, B.Kawulich & M. Garner. Doing social research: A global context (Pp.86-100). London: McGraw-Hill

Laher, S. (2010). Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best practice recommendations. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36, 1-7.

Ledesma, R. D. & Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the number of factors to retain in EFA: An easy-to-use computer program for carrying out parallel analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 12, 1-11.

Leech, N. L. & Onwuegbuzie, A. L. (2002). A call for greater use of nonparametric statistics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association. Retrieved January 13, 2009 from:

Meehl, P. E. (1992). Factors and taxa, traits and types, differences of degree and differences in kind. Journal of Personality, 60, 117-174.

Mulaik, S. A. (1972). The foundations of factor analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Nunally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

O’Connor, B. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 32, 396-402.

Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R. L. (1991). Essentials of behavior research: Methods and data analyses. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Van de Vijver, F. & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross cultural research. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.

Van de Vijver, F. & Tanzer, N. K. (1997). Bias and equivalence in cross-cultural assessment: An overview. European Review of Applied Psychology, 47, 263-280.

Velicer, W. F. (1976). Determining the number of components from the matrix of partial correlations. Psychometrika, 41, 321-327.

Descriptive statistics

The mean, median and mode

Inferential statistics

Population, sampling and other related concepts