Bedell, B., Van Eeden, R. & Van Staden, F. (1999). Culture as a moderator variable in psychological test performance: Issues and trends in South Africa. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 25, 1-7.

Boyle, G. J., Matthews, G. & Saklofske, D. H. (2008). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Cheung, F. M. (2004). Use of Western and indigenously developed personality tests in Asia. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53,173-191.

Online readings in psychology and culture – Centre for cross-cultural research, Western Washington University

Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R. L. (1991). Essentials of behavior research: Methods and data analyses. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Van de Vijver, F. & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross cultural research. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.

Van de Vijver, F. & Phalet, K. (2004). Assessment in multicultural groups: The role of acculturation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53, 215-236.

Van de Vijver, F. & Rothmann, S. (2004). Assessment in multicultural groups: The South African case. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30, 1-7.

Van de Vijver, F. & Tanzer, N. K. (1997). Bias and equivalence in cross-cultural assessment: An overview. European Review of Applied Psychology, 47, 263-280.

Bartram, D. (2009a). Leadership competencies: Differences in patterns of potential across eleven European countries as a function of gender and managerial experience. Advances in Global Leadership, 5, 35-64.

Bartram, D. (2012). Stability of OPQ32 personality constructs across languages, cultures, and countries. In: A. Ryan, F.T.L Leong, & F.L. Oswald. (eds). Conducting multinational research: Applying Organisational Psychology in the workplac. (pp. 59-89). Washington: APA.

Bartam, D. (2012, September). Scalar equivalence of the OPQ32: Big Five profiles of 31 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology [DOI:10.1177/0022022111430258]. Available FTP:

Inceoglu, I., Segers, J., Bartram, D., & Vloeberghs, D. (2009). Age difference in work motivation in a sample from five northern European countries. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 8(2), 59-70.